Introduction to Derivatives
It is all about slope!
|You can find an average slope between two points.|
But how do you find the slope at a point?
There is nothing to measure!
But with derivatives you use a small difference ...
... then have it shrink towards zero.
Let us Find a Derivative!
We will use the slope formula:
|Slope =||Change in Y||=||Δy|
|Change in X||Δx|
And follow these steps:
|Fill in this slope formula:||
|Simplify it as best you can.|
|Then make Δx shrink towards zero.|
Example: the function f(x) = x2
We know f(x) = x2, and can calculate f(x+Δx) :
|f(x+Δx) = (x+Δx)2|
|Expand (x + Δx)2:||f(x+Δx) = x2 + 2x Δx + (Δx)2|
|Fill in the slope formula:||
|Simplify: x2 and -x2 cancel:||
|Simplify some more: Divide through by Δx:||= 2x + Δx|
|And then as Δx heads towards 0 we get:||= 2x|
And you write dx instead of Δx heads towards 0, so the common notation for "derivative of" is :
x2 = 2x
"The derivative of x2 equals 2x"
or simply "d dx of x2 equals 2x"
Sometimes f’(x) is also used for "the derivative of":
f’(x) = 2x
"The derivative of f(x) equals 2x"
What does x2 = 2x mean?
It means that, for the function x2, the slope or "rate of change" at any point is 2x.
So, when x=2, the slope will be 2x = 4, as shown here:
Or when x=5 the slope will be 2x = 10, and so on.
Let's try another example.
Example: What is x3 ?
We know f(x) = x3, and can calculate f(x+Δx) :
|f(x+Δx) = (x+Δx)3|
|Expand (x + Δx)3:||f(x+Δx) = x3 + 3x2 Δx + 3x (Δx)2 + (Δx)3|
|Put it in the slope formula:||
|Simplify: x3 and -x3 cancel:||
|Simplify: Divide through by Δx:||= 3x2 + 3x Δx + (Δx)2|
|And then as Δx heads towards 0 we get:||x3 = 3x2|
Have a play with it using the Derivative Plotter.
Derivatives of Other Functions
We can use the same method to work out derivatives of other functions (like sine, cosine, logarithms, etc).
But in practice the usual way to find derivatives is to use:
Example: what is the derivative of sin(x) ?
On Derivative Rules it is listed as being cos(x)
Using the rules can be tricky!
Example: what is the derivative of cos(x)sin(x) ?
You can't just find the derivative of cos(x) and multiply it by the derivative of sin(x) ... you must use the "Product Rule" as explained on the Derivative Rules page.
It actually works out to be cos2(x) - sin2(x)
So that is your next step: learn how to use the rules.
"Shrink towards zero" is actually written as a limit like this:
"The derivative of f equals the limit as Δx goes to zero of f(x+Δx) - f(x) over Δx"
Or sometimes the derivative is written like this (explained on Derivatives as dy/dx):
The process of finding a derivative is called "differentiation".
You do differentiation ... to get a derivative.