The "Associative Laws" say that it doesn't matter how we group the numbers (i.e. which we calculate first) ...

... when we add

... or when we multiply.

Example addition: (6 + 3) + 4 = 6 + (3 + 4)

Because 9 + 4 = 6 + 7 = 13

Example multiplication: (2 × 4) × 3 = 2 × (4 × 3)

8 × 3 = 2 × 12 = 24

... when we add

... or when we multiply.

Example addition: (6 + 3) + 4 = 6 + (3 + 4)

Because 9 + 4 = 6 + 7 = 13

Example multiplication: (2 × 4) × 3 = 2 × (4 × 3)

8 × 3 = 2 × 12 = 24