# Roman Numerals

Read about Roman Numerals or go straight to the Roman Numeral Conversion Tool

## The Roman Symbols

The Romans used a special method of showing numbers, based on the following symbols:

 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000 I V X L C D M

## Basic Combinations

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 X XX XXX XL L LX LXX LXXX XC 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 C CC CCC CD D DC DCC DCCC CM

## Forming Numbers - The Rules

When a symbol appears after a larger symbol it is added

• Example: VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6

But if the symbol appears before a larger symbol it is subtracted

• Example: IX = X - I = 10 - 1 = 9

Don't use the same symbol more than three times in a row.

## Really Big Numbers

Numbers greater than 1,000 are formed by placing a dash over the symbol, meaning "times 1,000", but these are not commonly used:

 5,000 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 1,000,000 V X L C D M

## How to Convert to Roman Numerals

Break the number into Thousands, Hundreds, Tens and Units and write down each in turn.

### Example: Convert 1984 to Roman Numerals.

Break 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then do each conversion

• 1000 = M
• 900 = CM
• 80 = LXXX
• 4 = IV

So 1984 = MCMLXXXIV

## How To Remember

Think "MeDiCaL XaVIer".
It has the roman numerals in order from 1000 to 1.

## Conversion Tool

You can convert to/from Roman Numerals here: