Roman Numerals
Ancient Romans used a special method of showing numbers
Examples: They wrote V instead of 5
And wrote IX instead of 9
Read on to learn about Roman Numerals or go straight to the Roman Numeral Conversion Tool.
The Roman Symbols
Romans Numerals are based on the following symbols:
1

5

10

50

100

500

1000

I

V

X

L

C

D

M

Basic Combinations
Which can be combined like this:
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

X

XX

XXX

XL

L

LX

LXX

LXXX

XC

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

C

CC

CCC

CD

D

DC

DCC

DCCC

CM

Forming Numbers  The Rules
When a symbol appears after a larger (or equal) symbol it is added
 Example: VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6
 Example: LXX = L + X + X = 50 + 10 + 10 = 70
But if the symbol appears before a larger symbol it is subtracted
 Example: IV = V − I = 5 − 1 = 4
 Example: IX = X − I = 10 − 1 = 9
To Remember: After Larger is Added
Don't use the same symbol more than three times in a row (but IIII is sometimes used for 4, particularly on clocks)
How to Convert to Roman Numerals
Break the number into Thousands, Hundreds, Tens and Ones, and write down each in turn.
Example: Convert 1984 to Roman Numerals.
Break 1984 into 1000, 900, 80 and 4, then do each conversion
 1000 = M
 900 = CM
 80 = LXXX
 4 = IV
1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984, so 1984 = MCMLXXXIV
How To Remember
Think "MeDiCaL XaVIer".
It has the roman numerals in descending order from 1000 to 1.
I, for one, like Roman numerals!
Really Big Numbers
Numbers greater than 1,000 are formed by placing a dash over the symbol, meaning "times 1,000", but these are not commonly used:
5,000 
10,000 
50,000 
100,000 
500,000 
1,000,000 
V 
X 
L 
C 
D 
M 
Conversion Tool
You can convert to/from Roman Numerals here: