Squares and Square Roots
First learn about Squares, then Square Roots are easy.
How to Square A Number
To square a number, just multiply it by itself ...
Example: What is 3 squared?
3 Squared  =  = 3 × 3 = 9 
"Squared" is often written as a little 2 like this:
This says "4 Squared equals 16"
(the little 2 says
the number appears twice in multiplying)
Squares From 1^{2} to 6^{2}
1 Squared  =  1^{2}  =  1 × 1  =  1 
2 Squared  =  2^{2}  =  2 × 2  =  4 
3 Squared  =  3^{2}  =  3 × 3  =  9 
4 Squared  =  4^{2}  =  4 × 4  =  16 
5 Squared  =  5^{2}  =  5 × 5  =  25 
6 Squared  =  6^{2}  =  6 × 6  =  36 
The squares are also on the Multiplication Table: 
Negative Numbers
We can also square negative numbers.
Example: What happens when we square (5) ?
Answer:
(5) × (5) = 25
(because a negative times a negative gives a positive)
That was interesting!
When we square a negative number we get a positive result.
Just the same as if we had squared a positive number:
(For more detail read Squares and Square Roots in Algebra)
Note: if someone says "minus 5 squared" do we:
 Square the 5, then do the minus?
 Or do we square (5) ?
We get different answers:
Square 5, then do the minus:  Square (5):  
(5×5) = 25  (5)×(5) = +25 
We should make it clear what we mean, and that is what the "( )" are for.
Square Roots
A square root goes the other way:
3 squared is 9, so a square root of 9 is 3
A square root of a number is ...
A square root of 9 is ...
It is like asking:
What can we multiply by itself to get this?
To help you remember think of the root of a tree: "I know the tree, but what is the root that produced it?" In this case the tree is "9", and the root is "3". 
Here are some more squares and square roots:
4 
16 

5 
25 

6 
36 
Decimal Numbers
We can also square decimal numbers.
Try the sliders below. Note: the numbers here are only shown to 2 decimal places.
Using the sliders (remembering it is only accurate to 2 decimal places):
 What is the square root of 8?
 What is the square root of 9?
 What is the square root of 10?
 What is 1 squared?
 What is 1.1 squared?
 What is 2.6 squared?
The Square Root Symbol
This is the special symbol that means "square root",
it is sort of like a tick, and actually started hundreds of years ago as a dot with a flick upwards. It is called the radical, and always makes mathematics look important! 
We use it like this:
we would say "square root of 9 equals 3"
Example: What is √25?
Well, we just happen to know that 25 = 5 × 5, so if we multiply 5 by itself (5 × 5) we will get 25.
So the answer is:
√25 = 5
Example: What is √36 ?
Answer: 6 × 6 = 36, so √36 = 6
Perfect Squares
The perfect squares are the squares of the whole numbers:
1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  etc  
Perfect Squares:  1  4  9  16  25  36  49  64  81  100  121  144  169  196  225  ... 
Try to remember at least the first 10 of those.
Calculating Square Roots
It is easy to work out the square root of a perfect square, but it is really hard to work out other square roots.
Example: what is √10?
Well, 3 × 3 = 9 and 4 × 4 = 16, so we can guess the answer is between 3 and 4.
 Let's try 3.5: 3.5 × 3.5 = 12.25
 Let's try 3.2: 3.2 × 3.2 = 10.24
 Let's try 3.1: 3.1 × 3.1 = 9.61
 ...
Getting closer to 10, but it will take a long time to get a good answer!
At this point, I get out my calculator and it says: 3.1622776601683793319988935444327 But the digits just go on and on, without any pattern. So even the calculator's answer is only an approximation ! 
Note: numbers like that are called Irrational Numbers, if you want to know more.
The Easiest Way to Calculate a Square Root
Use your calculator's square root button! 
And also use your common sense to make sure you have the right answer.
A Fun Way to Calculate a Square Root
There is a fun method for calculating a square root that gets more and more accurate each time around:
a) start with a guess (let's guess 4 is the square root of 10)  
b) divide by the guess (10/4 = 2.5) c) add that to the guess (4 + 2.5 = 6.5) d) then divide that result by 2, in other words halve it. (6.5/2 = 3.25) e) now, set that as the new guess, and start at b) again 
 Our first attempt got us from 4 to 3.25
 Going again (b to e) gets us: 3.163
 Going again (b to e) gets us: 3.1623
And so, after 3 times around the answer is 3.1623, which is pretty good, because:
3.1623 x 3.1623 = 10.00014
Now ... why don't you try calculating the square root of 2 this way?
How to Guess
What if we have to guess the square root for a difficult number such as "82,163" ... ?
In that case we could think "82,163" has 5 digits, so the square root might have 3 digits (100x100=10,000), and the square root of 8 (the first digit) is about 3 (3x3=9), so 300 would be a good start.